Intercultural contexts provide richer socio-political environments for the fostering of critical reflection for transformation, but no known critical review has been dedicated to examining how research demonstrates the connection. Hence, our critical review answers the following questions: (a) How is transformative learning theory used to explain adult learners’ engagement in critical reflection on their first and second culture? (b) To what extent is critical reflection used to foster transformative learning that challenges the second culture? We critically analyzed 15 intercultural transformative learning studies published between 1990 and 2020. Emerging results showed that only 8 studies regarded the process of critical reflection, and the process was not significantly used to foster transformative learning that challenges the second culture’s assumptions. Empirical research is needed in the perspective of critical pedagogy which is not only about questioning the self but also about questioning the other.